The Secret Service history dates back to the Civil War when they were informally created to detect, investigate, and arrest counterfeiters. The early days were fraught with detectives who had less than ethical standards and tactics that disregarded the rights of a citizen. In less than ten years after its establishment, a reformation was demanded and a whole new breed of Secret Service Operative came into existence.
Who was this new breed of operative?
Operatives tended to have military, police, or detective experience and come from a law-abiding middle-class background. These men were successful in life prior to being appointed and often had a job history that indicated an ambition to do more.
Unlike their predecessors, they adapted their behavior to bureaucratic routine, followed orders, and obeyed rules. They were talented detectives, highly tolerant of paperwork, and committed to organizational goals.
They were a tough, capable, and honorable breed, with high standards of personal integrity, who felt it their duty to interact with criminals for the greater good of society.
“Employees will be judged by the character they sustain, by the results they accomplish, and by the manner in which they accomplish them.” – Elmer Washburn, Chief of the Secret Service 1874-1876
The Do’s and Don’ts of Being an Operative in the 1880s
- Avoid “any appearance of impropriety or disgraceful behavior.”
- Criminals are not personal acquaintances; they are enemies of the social order.
- Submit weekly reports to the director. They must include accounts of your actions and expenses every hour of every day.
- Do not accept gifts or gratuities to perform or forgo official duties.
- Do not deliver or give permission to use counterfeit money to any unauthorized person.
- All arrests must be in strict conformity to civil law and with the cooperation of the local policing institution.
- All financial transactions must be reported, even those with criminals.
- Report all criminal transactions: what was paid for counterfeit money, from whom it was purchased, where they deal was made, the kind of bogus money purchased, and how much counterfeit was obtained.
- Record “all charges for information and assistance,” including names and residences of each person receiving these sums.
- Purchasing counterfeit money must be done for the smallest, practical amount.
- “Authority must be had from this Office before any bargain is made for information or assistance, unless the operative can clearly make it appear that the interest of the service would have suffered materially by the delay necessary, in order to obtain such authority.”
- “Operatives will neither promise, either by word or implication, immunity from punishment, nor anything in mitigation of sentence, to any person for any offense he may have committed.”
- Suspects must be warned about their rights – everything they said will be documented and used against them in court. Suspects needn’t answer any questions until a lawyer is obtained. (This was long before the Miranda Rights became required in 1966.)